Jean-Philippe Pignol.

Outcomes of unplanned and sensitivity analyses and the result of censoring are included in the Supplementary Appendix, available with the full text of this content at NEJM.org. Results Study Participants Between April 1993 and September 1996, a total of 1234 patients underwent randomization, with 612 assigned to the control group and 622 to the hypofractionated-radiation group. The two groups were related at baseline: 24.7 percent of the women were younger than 50 years of age; 31.3 percent had tumors that were 2 cm or larger in size; 26.8 percent had high-grade disease; 41.8 percent received adjuvant tamoxifen, and 10.9 percent had received adjuvant systemic therapy, most commonly cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil. Twenty-one sufferers did not have the specified radiation program .Scientists can diagnose genetic disorders such as Down’s syndrome by using gene markers, or ‘probes’, which bind to just highly similar chains of DNA. Once bound, the probe’s location could be conveniently detected by fluorescence, and this gives information about the gene problem. Related StoriesNew research examines previously unknown magic formula to DNA repairTumour DNA in the bloodstream can accurately monitor tumor in genuine timeCancer DNA in patient's bloodstream could help deliver personalized treatment for liver cancerDetecting these probes is often a slow and difficult process, however, as the chains become tightly coiled. The new method provided by Kyohei Terao from Kyoto University, and co-workers from The University of Tokyo, uses micron-sized hooks managed by lasers to catch and straighten a DNA strand with excellent precision and care.